Камчатка: SOS!
Save Our Salmon!
Спасем Наш Лосось!
Сохраним Лососей ВМЕСТЕ!

  • s1

    SOS – в буквальном переводе значит «Спасите наши души!».

    Камчатка тоже посылает миру свой сигнал о спасении – «Спасите нашего лосося!»: “Save our salmon!”.

  • s2

    Именно здесь, в Стране Лососей, на Камчатке, – сохранилось в первозданном виде все биологического многообразие диких стад тихоокеанских лососей. Но массовое браконьерство – криминальный икряной бизнес – принял здесь просто гигантские масштабы.

  • s3

    Уничтожение лососей происходит прямо в «родильных домах» – на нерестилищах.

  • s4

    Коррупция в образе рыбной мафии практически полностью парализовала деятельность государственных рыбоохранных и правоохранительных структур, превратив эту деятельность в формальность. И процесс этот принял, по всей видимости, необратимый характер.

  • s5

    Камчатский региональный общественный фонд «Сохраним лососей ВМЕСТЕ!» разработал проект поддержки мировым сообществом общественного движения по охране камчатских лососей: он заключается в продвижении по миру бренда «Дикий лосось Камчатки», разработанный Фондом.

  • s6

    Его образ: Ворон-Кутх – прародитель северного человечества, благодарно обнимающий Лосося – кормильца и спасителя его детей-северян и всех кто живет на Севере.

  • s7

    Каждый, кто приобретает сувениры с этим изображением, не только продвигает в мире бренд дикого лосося Камчатки, но и заставляет задуматься других о последствиях того, что творят сегодня браконьеры на Камчатке.

  • s8

    Но главное, это позволит Фонду организовать дополнительный сбор средств, осуществляемый на благотворительной основе, для организации на Камчатке уникального экологического тура для добровольцев-волонтеров со всего мира:

  • s9

    «Сафари на браконьеров» – фото-видеоохота на браконьеров с использованием самых современных технологий по отслеживанию этих тайных криминальных группировок.

  • s10

    Еще более важен, контроль за деятельностью государственных рыбоохранных и правоохранительных структур по предотвращению преступлений, направленных против дикого лосося Камчатки, являющегося не только национальным богатством России, но и природным наследием всего человечества.

  • s11

    Камчатский региональный общественный фонд «Сохраним лососей ВМЕСТЕ!» обращается ко всем неравнодушным людям: «Save our salmon!» – Сохраним нашего лосося! – SOS!!!

  • s12
  • s13
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  • s15
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ТЕМА: А. Дж. Финдли

А. Дж. Финдли 13 окт 2010 23:14 #341

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Справочник Финдли, 1851.
(А. Дж. Финдли – не путешественник, он обобщил сведения о Петропавловске и Камчатке, добросовестно указав первоисточники. Книга вышла перед Крымской войной и служила пособием как для агрессоров, так и для журналистов.)

A directory for the navigation of the Pacific ocean[ch8206] -
Alexander George Findlay – 1851
Издатель R. H. Laurie, 1851
Стр. 594 и далее.

CAPE SHIPOUNSKOI is in lat. 53° 6', and is 1° 11' E. of Petropaulovski. It is the extremity of some level land, which advances 3 miles from the chain extending to the Joupanoff Volcano, and terminates on the sea-coast throughout in rocky cliffs 200 feet high. Seen from the S.W. or N.E., it has the same aspect as that of a projecting and even cape, but on the S.E. the level appearance is confounded with the other mountains, because their flanks to the N.E. and S.W. reach to the sea. Beyond the extreme point are some detached rocks, which seem to be united by a reef.

Capt. L[ch252]tke observed a strong current off the cape which produced some overfalls.

Cape Nalatcheff is 22 miles W.N.W. 1/2 W. from Cape Shipounskoi. It is a high, steep mountain, the summit irregularly rounded; it projects in a point to the South. Besides its elevation, it is distinguished from the neighbouring coast by its black colour. Seen from S.W. it seems to be detached. The coast to the eastward of it is low and sandy near the sea, and rises towards a chain of moderately high mountains, but which are steep, and terminate in peaks; these extend to Cape Shipounskoi. Viewed from the S.W., this chain seems interrupted in a part where Betchevinska'ia Bay opens. This would be an excellent harbour if vessels could anchor, but there are only 4 feet water in its opening. Merchant vessels used formerly to visit the little River Vakhilshaia, which debouches 5 miles N.W. of this bay. The coast westward of Cape Nalatcheff is low and level, and rises gradually on all sides towards the summit of the Koletskoi Volcano. The little River Kalakhtyrha, which enters the sea at 7 miles from the lighthouse cape of Awatska Bay, is pointed out by a rock of moderate height, whitened by the dung of the sea-birds, lying 2 versts ( English miles) to the South of it. This river abounds with fish; and many of the inhabitants of Petropaulovski have fisheries here. There is very little water in its entrance.

The coast between this river and Awatska Bay is lofty, and terminates on the coast, in many parts, in high cliffs. This space is intersected in one part by a low isthmus, between the bottom of Rakovya Bay and the sea, across which the hunters who go to take birds from Toporkoff Island transport their canoes.

AWATSKA BAY*

This bay, the principal port of the Peninsula of Kamtschatka, derives its chief interest from its containing the Port of St. Peter and St. Paul, Petropaulovski, as much from its intrinsic superiority. It is so extensive and excellent, that it would allow all the navies in the world to anchor in perfect security in its capacious basin. Yet the navigator in entering it will at first see no sign of human habitation or commerce on its shores, unless, perchance, some vessel may be approaching or quitting its only port, the little town above mentioned. As it is the principal point of interest in this remote region, we have been the more diffuse in its description, more so than its own importance would warrant.

It was visited by Capt. Beechey in H.M.S. Blossom, who made an accurate

• It is thus written by Capt. Beechey. Capt. Du Petit Thouars and others write “Avatcha” , M[ch252]ller says Awatscha ; or properly, according to Kamtschadalian pronunciation, Suaatcha.— Voyage et D[ch233]couvertes des Russes. p. 36.
* M.G.P. Muller.
Voyage et D[ch233]couvertes
Faites par les Russes le long des c[ch244]tes de
la Mer Glaciale & sur l'Oc[ch233]an Oriental,
tant vers le Japon que vers l’Am[ch233]rique.
On Y A Joint

L' HISTOIRE DU FLEUVE AMUR

Et des pays adjacens, depuis la conqu[ch234]te des Russes; avec la Nouvelle Carte qui pr[ch233]sente ces D[ch233]couvertes & le cours de l'Amur, dress[ch233]e sur des M[ch233]moires authentiques, publi[ch233]e par l'Acad[ch233]mie des Sciences de S. P[ch233]tersbourg , & corrig[ch233]e en dernier lieu.

Ouvrages traduits de l'Allemand de M. G. P. MULLER, Par C. G. F. Dumas.
1768

AWATSKA BAY. 595

and ample survey of it; and has also furnished part of the subsequent directions. In the narrative of the voyage of the French frigate La Venus, under Capt. Du Petit Thouars, is a lengthened account of it commercially and nautically; and from this source, too, much abridged, we have drawn up the following account of it.*

The Road of Avatscha, or Awatska, on the eastern coast of Kamtschatka, lies at the bottom of the bay of the same name ; it is reached through a narrow channel, which is 4 miles long and about 1 mile broad. This strait, although thus narrow, is not dangerous, because there is anchorage throughout its whole extent; in it, as in nearly all close channels, the winds are almost always either directly in or out of it; that is, they are either contrary or favourable for passing it. The immense Bay of Awatska, which leads to this channel, is formed by the retreat of the coast line between Capes Gavareah and Shipounskoi, or Cheponskoi; these two capes are the best landfalls for making the Port of Petropaulovski. In fact, whether Cape Gavareah or Cape Shipounskoi is closed with, if the vessel should be overtaken in either of these positions by thick fogs or strong winds from East or S.E., it is always possible to keep at sea ; should the endeavour be to make the channel at once on its parallel, not only will the making the coast be retarded without any advantage being gained, but should she then be surprised by any contrariety, there is no means of making an advantageous tack in order to keep off, and the situation of the ship will be troublesome, there being no soundings on the coast, and neither do they offer any anchorage which could be taken in such circumstances. By proceeding in this way several vessels destined for Petropaulovski have been lost, and that which brought the government provisions in May, 1836, ran ashore on the reefs off Toporkoff Island.

In coming from the East or South, Cape Gavareah, then, should be first made; this point may be approached very nearly, and is nearer the port than Shipounskoi; but if coming from the North, it is more natural and convenient to make for Shipounskoi. In the first case, if the weather be clear, before arriving close to Cape Gavareah, the Peak of the Koriatskoi or Avatscha Mountain! will be seen to the N. by W.; it is nearly as high as that of Teneriffe, and may be seen in clear weather 30 or 40 leagues off. To the right of this peak, and close to it on the East, is the Koselskoi Volcano : I this mountain, not quite so high as the first, is equally remarkable. If, with the prospect of these mountains, you should see, further to the West, the Peak of Villeuchinski,^ which is to the S.S.W. of the volcano and the town of Petropaulovski, there cannot be any doubt as to the position of the ship, more particularly should you also make out, to the South of Villeuchinski, Mount Gavareachinski, standing above Cape Gavareah, and at 16 miles to the W.N.W., true, from that cape. The view of these four mountains will alone be sufficient to make sure of the port; and if, as occurs very frequently, the coast should be enveloped in fog, and these mountains only are seen, by directing the course either on to the Villeuchinski Peak, or that of Avatscha, the track will lead very near to the entrance, the points of which are readily made out.

• See also Capt. King, in Cook's Third Voyage; Capt. Rikord, in Golownin's account of Japan : Capt. L[ch252]tke, Voyage du Simavine, Part. Naut., tec.

t 11,5.54 feet, according to Capt. Beechey. t 9,058 feet, ibid. $ 7,872 feet, ibid.

|| Flat Mountain, 7,932 feet, ibid.

Having reached to 4 or 5 miles to the East of Cape Gavareah, and running N. by W., true, for 33 miles, you will reach the lighthouse at the entrance, in the middle of the channel; if the vessel is to the East of, and the same distance from, Cape Shipounsko'i, the route will be W.S.W. and W.S.W. J W., true, for about 50 miles; in either case account must be taken of the currents occasioned by the tide.

Lastly, being the latitude, and approaching Cape Gavareah from seaward, after making Mount Gavareachinski, you will see to the right, towards the N.W.,thatof Villeuchinski, and nearly at the same time, more to the northward, the peaks of Avatscha and the Koselskoi Volcano. In approaching the coast will be observed beneath the two first mountains, and it will be seen stretching away to the South, and on the other side trending and decreasing in height towards the North ; but the land in the bottom of the bay, being too distant, will not be seen. The coast, for this reason, appears to terminate here; but as it shows itself again more to the North, beneath the peaks of Avatscha and the volcano, the part of the coast that is not seen will have the appearance of an entrance or strait; and it is in this part that the entrance lies. In nearing it the coast successively shows itself. After that will be seen, under the volcano peak, a point that is higher and blacker than the neighbouring coasts, and which successively extends by degrees towards the West; on this blackish point a small hut will be seen like a small white speck. This hut is the dwelling of the signal men in charge of the fire which is lighted on this point as soon as night approaches ; but only when a vessel is expected or in sight. Whatever may be the position of the vessel, as soon as the entrance light is seen she may steer for it, rather to windward of it; but it must not be approached at less than 2 miles off to the East of a line due North and South, true, on account of a ledge of rocks which is attached to the point, and extends IJ miles to the S.E. by E., true, from the point and lighthouse. It is necessary then, in beating in, to pay attention to this bearing of the light, or, which is preferable, if it is daylight, not to shut in with the lighthouse point three high rocks lying about a mile to N.W., true, from the point; these basaltic locks, called the Three Brothers, are remarkable for their needle-like form, and are nearly steep-to ; outside of them they may be approached within a cable's length.

The point which forms the South entrance of the channel was named Point Venus. Close to it, to the East, there is a breaker; but it is so near the shore, that it is not dangerous by keeping a cable's length off. It is on this side of the passage that the depth is greatest. After doubling Point Venus, a small bay will be seen on the same side ; and beyond it, to N.N.W., true, from the point, a second, the extremity of which is very perpendicular, and is surrounded by high rocks in the form of pyramids and needles. Two rocky islets lie outside to S.E. by E. of this last point. From these islets to Point Staniski, which follows lo N. by E., all the bay is bestrewed with shoals and rocks, the easternmost of which forms the West limit of the channel. On this shoal is a rock, which points out its place ; this serves as a beacon, and does not cover but seldom, and then it shows by breakers. This shoal, named Staniski, very much narrows the space for heating through; it lies 1 rV miles to the West, true, from the Three Brothers Shoal, and will be cleared by keeping the eastern part of the Babouschka Rock

AWATSKA BAY. 597

(on the West side) on the eastern point of the South Signal Post, which is beyond it on the same side. If it is night, it will be sufficient to steer so as to keep in sight the light on the South Signal Post to the right of Babouschka, which is easily done ; for, should you get to the West of it, the light will be hidden by Babouschka.

Having reached Staniski Point, which ought not to be approached within 2 cables' length, on account of a sunken rock, which does not always show, and on account of the flood current setting on to this part, the ebb setting on to the Staniski Bank, steer for Ismena'i Islet, then you will come up more West after doubling the Babouschka Rock, so as to keep at an equal distance from either coast, or rather closer to the windward side.

If it is necessary to beat through, on running the eastern board, Pinnacle Point must not be approached, for it is surrounded by rocks and shoals. A good bearing for clearing these dangers is not to open the Brothers to the right of the Lighthouse Point, or better not to shut in the North Signal Post by Point Ismenai; but this last is not always visible from fog. The South Signal Point is clear, and may be passed close-to. Point Ismenai is not so ; it projects 2 cables' length to the West. This may be cleared by keeping Point Venus hidden by Point Staniski, or by not uncovering it.

After passing to the North of Ismenai Point, the eastern side may be ranged close to, on the West side of the entrance; and to the North of the South Signal Post there is a sand-bank, extending for 2J miles to N.N.W., true, from this point; but on this side of the passage the depth diminishes gradually, and there is sufficient time to about-ship when less than 5 fathoms is found ; it will be enough, on the eastern tack, not to hide the Babouschka Rock by the South Signal Point.

There is another bank in the Road of Petropaulovski ; it lies to the North of the North Signal Post, and about miles from this point. It is called the Rakovya Bank, and separates the road of Rakovya from that of Petropaulovski. It is a rocky shoal, with 4J feet on it; it is sometimes marked by a buoy, with a small flagstaff on it; it is dangerous during the ebb which sets over it, but is easily avoided both when it is marked by the buoy, or by not shutting the Brothers in with Point Ismenai. At night, by not hiding the entrance light by Point Ismenai, you will also have nothing to fear. With the exception of these banks, there is deep water to the shore throughout the bay, and the bottom is excellent anchorage.

There are no cross marks sufficiently good to know when you have doubled to the North of the Rakovya Bank, but you may judge by the distance of Point Shakoff, at the entrance of the port, or by the bearing and distance of the buoy on it.

If you arrive by night off the entrance to the bay, and the wind should be contrary for entering, it will be dangerous to attempt to enter the port without the assistance of a pilot, or unless well acquainted with it.

With contrary winds, with wind too light to steer, or during calm, the currents and narrowness of the entrance render the navigation difficult; but the possibility of anchoring throughout diminishes the danger; with a leading wind, the entering or leaving Awatska Bay offers much difficulty,, no danger.

If the currents affect the steering, which, in a light breeze, frequently happens in the entrance, it is well to anchor in Ismenal Bay, or, if necessary, in any part of the channel.

The lights at the entrance are very judiciously placed. The outer light may be approached without any risk, by means of the lead and anchor close to it, should the wind be contrary ; but if the wind is favourable for entering, from the middle of the channel steer on to the South Signal Light, and keep it on the East targent of Babouschka ; this will bring the ship abreast of Point Staniski, and from this point, steering North or N. h E., will bring you to the middle of the coast, between Point Ismenai and the North Signal Post, taking care to bear North, or even N.W. J N., as soon as you are to the North of the North Signal Post, and steering thus you will reach safely the anchorage of Petropaulovski. Care must be taken, in this course, not to shut in the entrance light by the land of Point Ismenai, so as to clear the Rakovya Bank.

The lights shown from the Lighthouse Point, from the South Signal Post and the North Signal Post, are not done so regularly ; they are only so when a vessel is seen or expected at Petropaulovski. This circumstance renders prudence necessary in approaching. The lights are not shown from lighthouses. One ought to be erected on the entrance point, but at present they are wood fires, kept up by the signal-men on the different points.

There is no particular precaution necessary for safety in anchoring in Awatska Bay: the sea is never so heavy as to occasion any trouble; but as the bay is surrounded by high mountains, violent gusts are sometimes felt, so that, for greater security and quietude, it is better to have a long hawser out.

The tidal currents are very irregular, both in form and duration; they were never found more than at 2 miles in the entrance, or 1T*5 miles in the road.

There was no sand found throughout the bay, except on the bank off the South Signal and off some other point: but on the shore pure sand was never fouud ; it was always mixed with earth, rocks, or pebbles.

The HARBOUR of PETROPAULOVSKI, on the eastern side of this bay, is small, deep, and well shut it. It is defended by three small raking batteries, mounted with guns of small calibre. A vessel, of whatever size, can enter it, and undertake any description of repairs.

Tareinski Harbour, lying in the S.W. part of the bay, is immense and excellent, but as there is neither population nor commerce in it, it has, up to the present time, been of no utility.

Rakovya Harbour also forms, to the South of Petropaulovski, an equally excellent port, but it is of less easy access than the foregoing, on account of the Rakovya Bank, lying in the middle of the channel leading to it.

In fine weather the morning breeze is from the North to N.N.W., lasting until eight or ten o'clock, and sometimes even until eleven o'clock ; then, shifting to the West and South, it sinks altogether: in the afternoon, about one or two o'clock, the breeze from the offing sets in, varying from South towards East.*

• Voyage sur la Fregate La Venus, Tome ii. pp. bit—68.

AWATSKA BAY. 599

DIRECTIONS BY CAPT. BEECHEY.*—It is desirable to make the coast well to the southward of Cape Gavareah, and to round it as closely as possible, as the wind will, in all probability, veer to the northward on passing it. If the weather be clear, two mountains will be seen to the West and N.W. of the cape, and one far off to the northward and eastward. The eastern one of the two former, called Villeuchinski, is 7,372 feet high, and peaked like a sugar-loaf, and is in lat. 62° 39'43' N., and lon. 49' 46" W. of Petropaulovski, (158° 22' E.) The highest and most northern of the three latter is the Mountain of Awatska, in lat. 53° 20' 1" N., and 3' 47" E. of the before-mentioned town. Its height is 11,500 feet, and in clear weather it may be seen a very considerable distance. The centre hill of the three is the volcano, but it emits very little smoke. These peaks are the best guide to Awatska Bay, until near enough to distinguish the entrance, which will then appear to lie between high perpendicular cliffs. Upon the eastern one of these, the lighthouse bluff, there are a hut and signal staff, and when any vessel is expected a light is sometimes shown. If the harbour be open, a large rock, called the Babouschha, will be seen on the western side of the channel, and three others, named the Brothers, on the eastern side, off the lighthouse. The channel lies in a N. by W. direction, true ; and when the wind is fair it may be sailed through by keeping mid-channel; but it frequently happens that vessels have to beat in, and as the narrowness of the channel renders it necessary to stand as close to the dangers as possible, in order to lessen the number of tacks, it is requisite to attend strictly to the leading marks.

The outer dangers are a reef of rocks lying S.E., about 2 miles from the lighthouse, and a reef lying off a bank which connects the two capes opposite, i. e., Staniski Point, with the cape to the southward. To avoid the lighthouse reef, do not shut in the land to the northward of the lighthouse bluff, unless certain of being at least 2 J miles off shore, and when within three-quarters of a mile only, tack when the lighthouse bluff bears North, or N. J E. The Brothers Rock, in one with the lighthouse, is close upon the edge of the reef. The first western danger has a rock above water upon it, and may be avoided by not opening the Babouschka with the cape beyond, with a flagstaff upon it, or by keeping Staniski Point well open with the said signal bluff. In standing towards this rock, take care that the ebb tide in particular does not set you upon it. A good working mark for all this western shore is the Babouschka open with Direction Bluff, the last cape or hill on the left upon the low land, at the head of Awatska Bay. The bay South of Staniski Point is filled wilh rocks and foul ground. The lighthouse reef is connected with the Brothers, and the cape must not be approached in any part within half a mile, nor the Brothers within a full cable's length. There are no good marks for the exact limit of this reef off the Brothers, and consequently ships must estimate that short distance. They must also here, and once for all, in beating through this channel, allow for shooting in stays, and for the tides, which, ebb and flood, sweep over toward these rocks, running S.E. and N.E. They should also keep good way on the vessel, as the eddy currents may otherwise prevent her coming about.

• Voyage of the Blossom, part ii Appendix, pp. G4!)-;'»0.

To the northward of the Brothers, two-thirds of the way between them and a ragged cape, at the South extreme of a large sandy bay (Ismenai Bay), there are some rocks nearly awash; and off the rugged cape called Pinnacle Point (N.N.W. 1| miles from the lighthouse), there is a small reef, one of the outer rocks of which dries at half-tide. These dangers can almost always be seen ; their outer edges lie nearly in a line, and they may be approached within a cable's length. If they are not seen, do not shut in the Rakovya signal bluff. Off' Pinnacle Point the lead finds deeper water than mid-channel, and very irregular soundings.

To the northward of Staniski Point the Babouschka may be opened to the eastward a little with the signal staff bluff, but be careful of a shoal which extends about 3 cables' length South of the Babouschka. Babouschka has no danger to the eastward, at a greater distance than a cable's length ; and when it is passed, there is nothing to fear on the western shore, until N.N.W. of the signal staff, off which there is a long shoal, with only 2 and 2J fathoms. The water shoals gradually toward it, and the helm may safely be put down in 4j fathoms ; but a certain guide is not to open the western tangent of Babouschka with Staniski Point South of it. There is no other danger on this side of the entrance.

When a cable's length North of Pinnacle Reef, you may stretch into Ismenai Bay, guided by the soundings, which are regular, taking care of a 3-fathoni knoll which lies half-way between Pinnacle Point and the cape North of it. This bay affords good anchorage, and it may be convenient to anchor there for a. tide. There is no other danger than the above-mentioned knoll. The large square rock at the northern part of this bay (Ismenai Rock) may be passed at a cable distance. This rock is connected with the land to the northward by a reef, and in standing back towards it, the Pinnacle Point must be kept open with the lighthouse. When in one, there are but 3J fathoms. Rakovya signal staff to the northward, in one with the bluff South of it (which has a large green bush overhanging its brow), will place you in 5 fathoms, close to the rocks.

Off the North bluff of Ismenai Bay there.extends a small reef to a full cable's length from the shore; until this is passed do not shut in Pinnacle Point with the lighthouse. But to the northward of it you may tack within a cable's length of the bluffs, extending that distance a little off the signal staff bluff, in consequence of some rocks which lie off them.

Northward of Rakovya signal staff, the only danger is the Rakovya Shop), upon the West part of which there is a buoy in summer, and to clear this keep the Brothers in sight.

There is no good mark for determining when you are to the northward of this shoal, and as the tides in their course up Rakovya Harbour are apt to set you towards it, it is better to keep the Brothers open until you are certain, by your distance, of having passed it (its northern edge is seven-eighths of a mile from Rakovya bluff), particularly as you may now stretch to the westward as far as you please, and as there is nothing to obstruct your beat up to the anchorage. The ground is everywhere good, and a person may select his own berth.

Rakovya Harbour, on the eastern side of Awatska Bay, will afford good security to a vessel runtime in from sea with a southerly gale, at which time she
PETROPAULOVSKI. 601

might find difficulty in bringing up at the usual anchorage. In this case, the Rakovya Shoal must be rounded, and left to the northward; 5 and 5 J fathoms will be close upon the edge of it, but the water should not be shoaled under 9 fathoms.

The little Harbour of Petropaulovski is a convenient place for a refit of any kind. In entering it is only necessary to guard against a near approach to the signal staff on the peninsula on the West. The sandy point may be passed within a few yards' distance.

Weighing from the anchorage, off the peninsular flagstaff, with light winds, and with the beginning of the ebb, it is necessary to guard against being swept down upon the Rakovya Shoal, and when past it, upon the signal bluff on the same side. There are strong eddies all over this bay, and when the winds are light, ships often become unmanageable. It is better to weigh with the last drain of the flood.

Tareinski Harbour, at the S.W. angle of Awatska Bay, is an excellent port, but it is not frequented. It has no dangers, and may be safely entered by a stranger.

It is high water at Petropaulovski at 3" 30' full and change; the tide rises 6 feet 7 inches spring tides, and 2 feet 2 inches neap tides.

The church at Petropaulovski is in lat. 53° 1' 0" N., lon. 158° 43' 30" E.

The TOWN of PETROPAULOVSKI, which is now at the head of the harbour, stands in an amphitheatre on the slopes of two hills, which form the valley, and is simply composed of a group of small wooden houses, covered with reeds or dry grass, and surrounded by courts and gardens, with palisades. At the lower part of the town, in the bottom of the valley, is the church; it is remarkable for its fantastic construction, and for its roof, which, painted green, seems to add considerably to the effect of the picture, surrounded as it is by lofty mountains.

In approaching Point Shakoff, as the extremity of the peninsula forming the harbour was named, and in which is a battery, a white buoy will be seen, marking the extremity of a bank, extending S.S.E. (true) from it ; this may be passed close to it, leaving it to the left, and thence steer to the end of a low point of land which projects at an angle of about 45° from the direction of the coast, and nearly closes the bottom of the bay, making it into an excellent natural harbour, the best that can be desired. This tongue of land, like an artificial causeway, is but little above the surface of the water, and is now covered with balagans, huts raised on piles above the ground, serving to dry fish. In the early days of the Russian occupation it was the site of the colony. Arrived at the bottom of the port you land on a plank, which holds the place of a mole, and pass directly before a guardhouse, near which is a small battery. Turning to the left down a good street, broad and macadamized, after passing the government workshops in the centre of Petropaulovski, turning to the right after passing them, and crossing a wooden bridge, you pass the church on the right hand, and then reach the government offices. These two streets are all that merit the name. The greater part of the houses outside of them are placed without any arrangement, and without any attempt at convenience or comfort. The general aspect of Petropaulovski greatly resembles the French
establishments at Newfoundland. The appearance of the fish-dryers' houses, and the strong smell of fish, give a greater degree to the similitude. The towns of St. Pierre and Miguelon, however, are larger, and are much more important commercially.

The houses are generally alike, and are called isbas, log-houses, the windows sometimes of glass, but more generally with talc, from Okhotsk. When La Perouse visited it the inhabitants generally lived in balagans, now there is not a single one so used. There is not a monument in Petropaulovski, except one, a simple column surmounted by a globe, surrounded by a railing, which bears an inscription, " To Captain Vitus Behring," in Russian. No edifice demands particular attention. In the church the rites of the Greek church are conducted with great richness and solemnity. There is, besides, an hospital and a school.

The population at the time of the visit of the Venus amounted to 385 men and 221 women ; the greater part employed by the government.*

CLIMATE.—Capt. Du Petit Thouars says, from the best information he could procure on the climate of Kamtschatka, it is evident that, up to the 15th of October, the weather is frequently fine at Petropaulovski ; but after this period it becomes very wet, and the land begins to be covered with snow, which becomes permanent, and does not disappear until May or June in the ensuing year. In the months of November, December, and January, violent storms are experienced.

During winter the cold is severe; the snow falls in an abundance far from common, and frequently rises as high as the houses, which thus become buried until the return of spring. The inhabitants are then obliged to open galleries to communicate from one house to another and to go to the church ; in the meantime, whatever may be the intensity of the cold, it is very rare that the roadstead is entirely frozen over; the ice does not generally extend more than a cable's length off shore; and further, after bad weather occasioned by winds on shore, as well as those from West and North, the ice becomes detached from the shore, and is carried out of the road. One of the most severe winters remembered at Petropaulovski was that of 1814. In that year the road was almost entirelyblocked up ; and there was only a small space clear immediately in front of the entrance between the northern and the southern signal. In ordinary winters, the coves, the bays, and the rivers, are only covered, and the ice is not always too thick to hinder a passage by breaking or cutting.

The resources of the port and road of Awatska are almost nothing; there is no certainty or reckoning on wood or water ; still less to procure any refitments for the ship. A vessel in need of repair will only find here a safe anchorage; besides this, she must depend on her own resources, both for provisions and workmen. It is, however, possible to obtain, in urgent cases, some slight aid from the government stores, and some workmen of the port; but these assistances, besides being very limited, are very precarious.

The muring of rattle has made good progress, and bullocks have sufficiently

• Voyage Autour du Monde sur la Fr[ch233]gate La Venus, 1836—39, tome ii. pp. 37—40.

PENINSULA OF KAMTSCHATKA. 603

increased to assure a supply of refreshments of that sort to a ship requiring it. There is also sometimes fresh butter to be procured; it is made by the Kamtschadales. It is very difficult to get poultry or eggs ; these are objects of luxury too rare in this country. There are no sheep nor pigs; the dogs, it is said, prevent their being reared. A few legumes are at rare times to be found.

Fish is very abundant in the bay, and the pursuit is successful in the good season; it begins with the cod and herrings, and is followed by the salmon and salmon-trout. These fish, on being taken, are salted for the winter provisions of the inhabitants and their dogs. It might be made as productive as the fisheries of Newfoundland were it followed with any commercial spirit. At present home consumption is alone attended to.

In general, there are but few species of shell-fish in the bay. Neither oysters nor other crustacea were found by the French, with the exception of crabs.

In winter the communication with the interior being easy, the Kamtschadales bring into the market at Petropaulovski, reindeer, argali sheep, bears, and also hares and partridges, which, like other Arctic animals, turn white in winter.*

The eastern coast of Kamtschatka, between Cape Gavareah and Cape Lopatka, trends to the S.W. South of Achachinsko'i the land is not so high and broken as between that bay and the mouth of Awatska Bay, being of only a moderate elevation toward the sea, with hills gradually rising farther back in the country. The coast is steep and bold, and full of white chalky patches.

About 7 leagues S. by W. of Cape Gavareah is a high headland, and between them are two narrow but deep inlets, which may unite, it was thought by Capt. King, behind what appeared to be a high island. The coast of these inlets is steep and cliffy. The hills break abruptly, and form chasms and deep valleys, which are well wooded.

Achachinsko'i Bay, in lat. 51° 54', is formed to the northward by a point, and penetrates deeply into the land, in the distant bottom of which Capt. King supposed a large river might empty itself, the land behind being unusually low. South of this bay, the land is not so rugged as the country to the northward.f

It was on this part of the coast that the singular occurrence of the wreck of a Japanese vessel occurred in July, 1729. In a former page we have spoken of such an event having occurred on the coast of Oregon, another will be mentioned at the Sandwich Islands. All these facts, which doubtless might be multiplied, would tend to prove that the winds and currents in the western portion of the North Pacific have a great analogy to those of the North Atlantic; the same progress of the cyclones, or revolving storms, and the same drift of the N.E. currents, like the great gulf stream. All these will be alluded to. The vessel in question was from Satsma, in Japan, bound for another Japanese port called Azaka (Ohosaka ?), laden with rice, cotton, and silks. She was driven from her course by a violent storm to sea, where they remained for six months, and at last reached this coast and cast anchor. The crew, seventeen in number, landed and encamped; and were by chance seen twenty-three days after by a Cossack chief, Andrew Tschinnikov, and some Kamtschadales. The unfortunate Japanese received them with the utmost joy, and loaded them with presents, but the

• Voyage de La Venus, tome ii. pp. 68—70. t Cook's Third Voyage, vol. iii. p. 381.

treacherous Cossack abandoned them directly. They then took to their boat, which Tschinnikov seeing, ordered them all to be shot but two ; one a boy of eleven, the other the supercargo, Sofa, a middle-aged man. The Cossack soon received a halter for his barbarity, and the two strangers were conducted to St. Petersburg, where they served as instructors to several pupils in their language. They survived five and six years. Their portraits are in the imperial cabinet at St. Petersburg.*

CAPE LOPATKA is the South part of Kamtschatka, and is in lat. 51° 2', and lon. 156° 50'. It is a very low, flat cape, sloping gradually from the high level land to the North, and to the N.W. of it is a remarkably high mountain. Its name, Lopatka, signifies the bladebone of a man, or a shovel, and is expressive of its form. It extends from the South end of the peninsula 10 or 15 miles, and is about half a mile broad.

The passage between this cape and the N.W. Kurile Island is about 3 miles broad, and very dangerous, on account of the strong currents and the sunken rocks off the cape. It may be here stated that this portion of the coast, from Awatska Bay southward, is delineated from the survey of Capt. Krusenstern. Liitke commenced at that port proceeding northward.
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